ADC – Analog to Digital Converter
This module acquires analog data signals and converts them into a digital data stream. The most important parameters are the sampling rate and resolution.
AI – Artificial Intelligence
The term originates from computer science and deals with automated decision making, which is based on intelligent learning and corresponding behavior. Known subfields of Artificial Intelligence are ‘machine learning’ and ‘deep learning’.
In the widest sense, artificial intelligence is based on pattern recognition, which is linked by means of neural networks.
AMC – Advanced Mezzanine Card
The PICMG Advanced Mezzanine Card (AdvancedMC, AMC, AMC module) specification describes computer interface cards. The original purpose was to define a successor format for PCI Mezzanine Cards (PMCs) for use as a hot-swappable mezzanine module for AdvancedTCA systems. Later, the PICMG MicroTCA specification defined enclosure systems for the operation of AMC modules. They can be plugged in from the outside and thus allow the construction of systems that are easy to maintain.
AMCs can have arbitrary functions, e.g. be I/O or CPU modules. Since each AMC slot can accommodate one CPU module, multi-processor systems can also be easily implemented. Learn more,…
ARINC – Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
ARINC is a company from the USA, which was founded in 1929 in Annapolis, Maryland. The company, which specializes in aviation, became known for the communication protocols named after it, such as ARINC 429. The ARINC communication standards are used in both civil and military aviation.
CAN – BUS
The CAN bus was developed in the 1980s for the automotive industry and is a serial bus system defined in ISO 11898-1. In the meantime, this standard can be found in all sectors and industries.
A special feature is the networking of all communication participants via a single line, a high degree of data security by means of error detection and a guarantee of redundancy by means of a simple implementation of multi-master systems.
CPCI – Compact PCI
CompactPCI is defined by PICMG and was released in 1997. It is a modular and scalable approach to building 19″ slot systems with a passive backplane that has become established for an extremely wide range of applications in industrial, commercial, aerospace, military, instrumentation, data acquisition, communications, telephony, machine control, and human-machine interface.
The specification is based on the adoption of the PCI parallel bus as the main data bus. PCI was the first universal, processor-independent computer bus adopted by all major microprocessor manufacturers.
The cards are defined in 3U and 6U Eurocard form factors mechanical standards IEEE 1101.1 and IEEE 1101.10.
One of the best known CPCI applications is its use as the main computer in the Marsrover Curiosity. Otherwise, CPCI systems can be found in all industries.
Due to the architecture, the maximum performance of CPCI systems is limited, so this standard was further developed under the name CPCI-Serial. In new systems, CPCI or CPCIS rarely plays a role; here, for example, more and more MTCA systems are being used.
CPCIS – Compact PCI Serial
Compact PCI Serial is the further development of the CompactPCI standard, which was published by PICMG in 2011.
In contrast to CPCI, CPCIS uses only point-to-point connections. The mechanical dimensions do not differ from CPCI systems.
CPCIS rarely plays a role in new systems, where more and more for example MTCA systems are used.
DSP – Digital Signal Processor
A DSP is a hardware component that continuously processes digital signals. If additional analog signals are to be processed, this is done in combination with an ADC converter. Typical applications are frequency filters, data compression or signal analysis.
FMC – FPGA Mezzanine Card
FMC are adapter boards defined according to VITA 57.1, which specifically capture the data for FPGAS, but are modular in design. The connection between I/O board and FPGA is made via high-pole high-speed connectors. This is used e.g. for SDR systems and Gig-Vision applications. The company NAT also offers FMCs which can be plugged twice on top of each other.
FPGA – Field Programmable Gate Array
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit which is programmed with individual logic gates. The FPGA configuration is usually specified using a hardware description language (HDL), similar to an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Unlike microprocessors, processing does not occur in a timed sequence, but rather as a function of the defined circuit structure.
FPGAs contain a set of programmable logic blocks and a hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow blocks to be routed together. The logic blocks can be configured to perform complex combinatorial functions or act as simple logic gates such as AND and XOR. In most FPGAs, the logic blocks also contain memory elements that are simple flip-flops or complete memory blocks.
FPGAs are used where fast signal processing and flexible circuit modification are required. For example, FPGAs are used for pre-processing optical image data in 10Gig Vision and SDR MTCA systems.
10GigE Vision / GigE Vision
This is an interface standard for the distribution of image data. GigE Vision is particularly characterized by the use of Gigabit Ethernet technology with which conventional network cables can be used. Furthermore, data rates of up to 1,000 Mbit/s and cable lengths of up to 100 meters can be realized without repeaters.
In the latest version ’10 GigE Vision’, data rates of up to 10,000 Mbit/s can be realized.
Up to 24 cameras can be connected to MTCA systems in a 2U chassis, including pre-processing and CPU.
HPC – High Performance Computing
High-performance computers are systems that are used for complex calculations, analyses or simulations. Often these systems consist of several CPUs and many GPUs. For common industrial applications embedded servers are used with e.g. 2x CPUs and up to 10x GPUs. The challenges are primarily in the software, which must be able to use all resources intelligently.